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Math Glossary Letter B
babylonian method
A method to find square roots using dividing and averaging
Bachet Conjecture
Also known as Lagrange's four square theorem - every natural number can be stated as the sum of four integer squares
bakshali method
A square root method using perfect squares
balance equations
A method of shuffling numbers and signs to get two sides of an equation to equal each other
balance sheet
financial statement summarizing a company's assets, liabilities and shareholders' equity at a specific point in time
balance with interest
The value of a fund when a balance is credited with interest for a specific period of time at a certain interest rate
basal metabolic rate
A measure of energy expenditure while at rest
base conversion
Converting a number in one base to another base
baseball
game played between two teams of nine players each who take turns batting and fielding
basic math
Elementary math subject to help students understand fundamentals, before moving on to more difficult subjects
bayes rule
Probability of an event, based on existing preconditions of other events
bearing
Angle measurement of a direction
benchmark fractions
common fraction that gives you a reference to measure other fractionswith
bending beams displacement
bernoulli distribution
A discrete distribution with two possible outcomes, n = 0, and n = 1
bernoulli trials
Repeating an experiment using a bernoulli distribution
Comparing two price and quantity measurements to see which offer is better
bigram
Two adjacent elements of letters, symbols, or words
binary
Base 2 for numbers
bingo
game of chance in which each player matches numbers pre-printed in different arrangements on 5×5 cards
binomial distribution
discrete probability distribution of the number of successes in a sequence of n independent experiments, with a success or failure outcome
binomial multiplication
Multiplying two binomials using the FOIL method
binomial option pricing model
iterative number tree for pricing options
binomial theorem
algebraic expansion of powers of a binomial
binomials
Polynomial which is the sum of two monomials
biology
study of life and living organisms, including their physical and chemical structure, function, development and evolution
bisect
Cut an angle into 2 equal parts.
bit shifting
operation performed on the bits of a value, moving them either left or right
bitwise
operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the individual bit level
bitwise AND
bitwise NOT
bitwise OR
bitwise XOR
black-scholes method
pricing model used to determine the fair price or theoretical value for a call or a put option
blackjack
A game of chance played with cards
BMI
Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight
BMR
Basal Metabolic Rate - How many calories you would burn at rest for 24 hours.
body mass index
Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight
bond price
Current price of a bond based on interest rates and principal
bond salesman method
A formula to estimate yield rate for a bond
bond yield rates
the amount a bond pays out in interest
boolean algebra
branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0
boxcars
Slang for a pair of dice showing sixes on each die
boyles law
the pressure and volume of a gas have an inverse relationship, when temperature is held constant.

P1V1 = P2V2
brahmaguptas formula
A Euclidean geometry formula used to find the area of any cyclic quadrilateral (inscribed in a circle)
braille
writing system used by people who are visually impaired
braking distance
Amount of space required to stop a moving vehicle at a certain speed
Bretschneiders Formula
Alternative formula to determine the area of a quadrilateral
budget line equation
Equation showing all the combinations of goods and services that a consumer may purchase given current prices within his or her given income

I = PxQx + PyQy where I = Income, P denotes price, Q denotes quantity
bushel
capacity measurement
byte
Unit of memory size