Math Glossary Letter A
abcissa
Absolute value of the x-coordinate, or perpendicular distance to the y-axis. For the cartesian coordinates (x, y), the abscissa is |x|.
absolute value
A positive number representing the distance from 0 on a number line
abundant numbers
A number with a sum of proper divisors greater than the number itself
acceleration
Rate of change of the velocity with respect to time. Denoted as A(t).
accounting
measurement and communication of financial information
accounting rate of return
financial ratio used in capital budgeting

Average Return / Average Investment
accrued coupon
accrued interest is the interest on a bond or loan. The accumulation continued since the principal investment
accumulated value
The total value of an investment, including principal and interest accrued
accuracy
How close a measurement is to the true value
actuary
person who deals with the management of risk and uncertainty
acute angle
angle measuring less than 90 degrees
adding
The sum of elements
adding polynomials
Adding two polynomials and grouping like terms
addition
math operation involving the sum of elements
addition equality
Adding the same value to both sides of an equation does not change the equality of both sides
addition fact
The combinations of all sums of two 1-digit numbers
Addition Property of Inequality
Adding the same value to both sides of an inequality does not change the equality of both sides
addition table
A table showing the values of two numbers added together
additive identity
when you add any number to zero, the result is the original number
additive inverse
the number you add to (n) to get a result of zero
adjoint
the transpose of a cofactor matrix
aerobic
exertion or organism requiring oxygen
affine cipher
substitution cipher, wherein each letter in an alphabet is mapped to its numeric equivalent, encrypted using a simple mathematical function, and converted back to a letter
algebra
Study of symbols and rules in math
algebraic expressions
A way to write a mathematical expression from a phrase
algebraic substitution
An algebraic expression with substitution rules for each unknown variable
algorithm
A process to solve a problem in a set amount of time
altitude
segment from the vertex of a triangle ot the other side of the triangle
amortization
Repayment schedule of a loan principal over time
anaerobic
exertion or organism not requiring oxygen
anagram
Word or phrase formed by rearranging the letters of a different word or phrase
angle ratio for a triangle
An amount to express the size of each angle in relation to all three angles of a triangle
Angle Side Angle
postulate states that if two angles and the included side of one triangle are congruent to two angles and the included side of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent
angular momentum
rotational force
annual percentage rate
annual interest rate charged for the full year cost of borrowing money
annuity
A stream of payments
annuity table
A table if interest rates and factors for annuities
annulus
A ring shaped object, bounded by two concentric circles
ANOVA
Analysis of variance - statistical models used to analyze the differences among group means
antilog
inverse log calculation

y = antilog x --> 10x
apocalyptic power
A number of the form 2n that contains the digits 666
apothem of a pentagon
line segment from the center of the pentagon to the midpoint of one of its sides
apothem of a polygon
line segment from the center of the polygon to the midpoint of one of its sides
arc length of a circle
Distance formed from the central angle

2πrC/360
arccosine
inverse cosine function of x when -1?x?1
arcsine
inverse sine function
arctangent
inverse tangent function
area
Number of square units covering the shape
area code
numbering plan to classify each region in a calling area
area conversions
area of a circle
Number of square units covering a circle

πr2
area of a hexagon
Number of square units covering a hexagon
area of a kite
Number of square units covering a kite
area of a pentagon
Number of square units covering a pentagon
area of a polygon
Number of square units covering a polygon
area of a rectangle
Number of square units covering a rectangle
area of a rhombus
Number of square units covering a rhombus
area of a square
Number of square units covering a square
area of a trapezoid
Number of square units covering a trapezoid
area of equilateral triangle
sqrt(3)s2/4
area of the sector of a circle
Number of square units covering a circle sector
arithmetic annuity
A finite stream of payments with a first payment P, and each successive payment increasing by r
arithmetic perpetuity
A infinite stream of payments with a first payment P, and each successive payment increasing by r
arithmetic sequence
A set of numbers starting with a number n, and each successive number adds an amount (r)
ASA
Angle Side Angle. Another trigonometry postulate. If the corresponding two angles and included side are equal on 2 triangles, then both triangles are congruent.
ascii
American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication
asset
Resources of value in accounting. Land, Equipment, Cash are examples
Associative Property of Addition
A property stating the addition of numbers is the same regardless of grouping
Associative Property of Multiplication
A property stating the multiplication of numbers is the same regardless of grouping
ASVAB
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery - Aptitude test for the military
atomic weight
mass of an atom
automorphic numbers
A number with a square ending in the same digit as the original number

Example: 52 = 25
average
A number expressing the central value of a set
Average Accounts Receivable
Expected number of accounts receivable for a period
Average Collection Period
Number of days between a sale credit and collection from the customer
average deviation
Mean of the absolute values of the distance from the mean for each number in a number set
average inventory
expected inventory balance in a period

0.5(Beginning Inventory + Ending Inventory)
axiom
A statement accepted as true without proof
axis of symmetry
A line dividing a parabola into two equal halves. Both halves represent reflections of each other